HOME /Blog /PCB Assembly FAQ

PCB Assembly FAQ

Industrial Control Circuit Boards Assemble Manufacturing

2024-05-14

As we all know, the industrial control industry environment is complex and changeable, and there are also high requirements for the real-time performance of equipment. Therefore, various factors must be considered in designing and manufacturing industrial circuit boards. Industrial control printed circuit boards are key components used to control and monitor industrial equipment, systems or processes. Control boards play an important role in industrial automation, robotics, sensor networks and various other industrial applications.

1. Industrial Control PCB Assembly by Number of Layers  

Industrial control circuit boards can be divided into three major categories according to the number of layers: single-sided boards, double-sided boards, and multi-layer boards. These different types of PCBA have their characteristics and scope of application in industrial control.

(1) Single-sided Boards

● Single-sided PCB is one of the simplest types of circuit boards. They are usually used for simple control panels or industrial control systems with relatively simple functions. Such as buttons, indicator lights, and switch control panels for industrial equipment. For example, a simple automatic door controller may use a single-sided board to implement basic switch and indication functions.

● On a single-sided board, all components electronic and connecting wires are located on the same side, and the other side is fully covered with copper foil for electrical connection or grounding. For example, in industrial automation systems, single-sided boards can connect simple sensors such as temperature, humidity, etc. to achieve basic data acquisition and monitoring functions.

(2) Double-sided Boards  

● Double-sided PCB are an extension of single-sided boards and are suitable for industrial control systems or for manufacturing more complex industrial controllers, such as PLCs (programmable logic controllers) or industrial control computers. These controllers require more interfaces and functions, such as input/output interfaces, communication interfaces, etc. The double-sided PCBA design can better meet these needs. 

● On double-sided boards, wires and components can be distributed on both sides and connected through vias or jacks. Double-sided boards can implement complex data acquisition and processing functions in some industrial applications requiring high-precision data acquisition and real-time processing. For example, an industrial monitoring system may use double-sided boards to collect various sensor data and perform real-time analysis and feedback control. 

● Via technology allows signal transmission and electrical connection between two layers, improving the density and functionality of the industrial control electronics manufacturing

(3) Multilayer Boards

● Multilayer boards have three or more conductive graphic layers and insulating layers between them. 

● The design of multilayer boards allows more circuit components and connections to be accommodated in a smaller space, and is suitable for Industrial automation solutions with high performance, high density, and more complex circuit structures. For example, the control system of a high-performance CNC machine tool may use multilayer boards to implement complex motion control algorithms and a large number of input/output interfaces. 

● In some embedded control systems with extremely high signal integrity requirements, such as high-speed communication equipment or data storage systems, multilayer boards can achieve strict signal layer separation and electromagnetic interference suppression to ensure control system reliability and stability.

Circuit boards are used to connect sensors in industrial automation systems

2. Selection of The Number of Layers For Industrial Control PCBA Manufacturing

● Operating Frequency and Circuit Complexity

If the operating frequency of the industrial control system is low and the circuit is relatively simple, a double-sided board may be sufficient to meet the needs. However, if the operating frequency of the system is high or the circuit structure is complex, a multi-layer board may be required to provide better-printed circuit fabrication and signal transmission performance. 

● Assembly Density Requirements

Suppose the industrial control system has high requirements for assembly density and needs to accommodate more components and connections in a limited space. In that case, a multilayer board may be more suitable because it can provide higher wiring density and more complex circuit structure.

● High-frequency Characteristics Requirements

When the operating frequency of an industrial control system exceeds a certain threshold (such as above 200MHz), multilayer boards are usually more suitable because they can provide better high-frequency characteristics, including lower transmission loss, smaller parasitic capacitance, and higher transmission speed. In addition, multilayer boards made of high-frequency dielectric materials such as polytetrafluoroethylene can also reduce power consumption.

3. Industrial Control PCBA Production Process Key Equipment

● Printed Circuit Board Assembly Production Line

The PCBA production line is the core equipment of the entire PCB assembly manufacturing process, usually including multiple workstations to complete various production stages, including cutting substrates, cleaning, chemical treatment, photo-painting, etching, drilling, immersion gold, covering protective layers, etc.

● Etcher
Etchers are used to remove the copper layer to form the circuit pattern on the board. They use chemical solutions or gases to etch the copper that is not covered by the photoresist layer, thereby achieving the definition of the circuit pattern.

● Drilling Machines

drilling machines used to drill holes on PCBs to mount components or form via connections. These machines can automatically locate and drill holes according to industrial PCB design requirements, ensuring the accuracy and location of the holes. 

● Milling Machines

It is used for milling and contour cutting on industrial PCBs to remove excess material and form the final PCB shape.

 ● Automatic Soldering Machines

It is used to solder components on industrial PCBs automatically. They complete the soldering process by aligning the PCB pre-coated with solder paste with the components and heating them. 

● Inspection Equipment

 Inspection equipment in the industrial PCB manufacturing process is used to detect the quality and performance of PCBs, including electrical testing, visual inspection, X-ray inspection, etc.

Recommended news
Read More